A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. A substation may include transformers to change voltage levels between high transmission voltages and lower distribution voltages, or at the interconnection of two different transmission voltages.Sub-Station Equipment:
- Sub-Station Full Package
- Distribution Transformer
- High Tension (HT) Switchgear
- Low Tension (LT) Switchgear
- Power Factor Improvement (PFI)) Plant
- Main Distribution Board (MDB)
- Sub Distirbution Board (SDB)
- Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)
A transformer is a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another or multiple circuits. A varying current in any one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core, which induces a varying electromotive force across any other coils wound around the same core. Electrical energy can be transferred between separate coils without a metallic (conductive) connection between the two circuits
HT (High Tension) Switchgear:
In an electric power system, switchgear is composed of electrical disconnect switches, fuses, or circuit breakers used to control, protect, and isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply.
LT (Low Tension) Switchgear:
In an electric power system, switchgear is composed of electrical disconnect switches, fuses, or circuit breakers used to control, protect, and isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream.
PFI (Power Factor Improvement) Plant:
In electrical engineering, the power factor is the ratio of active power to apparent power. It is expressed by cosθ, the value of which can range from 0 to 1. The power factor indicates the percentage of electricity we can use for necessary purposes. Active power is measured in kilowatts (KW) and apparatus power is measured in volt-amperes (VA).
In an electrical installation, an earthing system or grounding system connects specific parts of that installation with the Earth's conductive surface for safety and functional purposes. The point of reference is the Earth's conductive surface. The choice of an earthing system can affect the safety and electromagnetic compatibility of the installation.